The postoperative period includes the time from the end of the operation to the recovery of the patient’s ability to work.
There are stages of the postoperative period: the nearest and remote stages. The closest phase begins when the operation ends and continues until discharge from the hospital. The remote stage includes postoperative treatment with medications.
In the immediate postoperative period, the most responsible is the early stage – the first 2-3 days after surgery. During this period, those changes in the state of life support systems are most expressed being a direct consequence of the operative trauma and anesthesia.
The risks of complications in the postoperative period are not dependent only on the extreme factors of the operating injury, but also on the nature of the disorders occur after surgery.The main factors causing the violation of homeostasis and function of systems life support after surgery are:
- circulatory and external respiration disorders;
- violation of fluid and electrolyte balance;
- impaired renal function and urination;
- gastrointestinal disorder;
- metabolic disorders;
- violation of hemostasis;
- thermoregulation disorder.
Therefore, the postoperative period, especially early, is no less important than other possible measures taken. As stated by Trusted Tablets specialists, it is incorrect to underestimate all the measures prescribed by a doctor.
Possible complications in the postoperative period
There are complicated and uncomplicated postoperative periods. The uncomplicated postoperative period is characterized by moderate disturbances of the biological equilibrium in the body and not pronounced reactive processes in the surgical wound, stability of homeostasis.
Table: Possible Complications from Different Body Systems
|Respiratory system||Cardiovascular system||Nervous system||Gastrointestinal tract||Genitourinary system||Surgical wounds|
|acute respiratory failure||acute heart failure||paresis||violation of the motor-evacuation function of the digestive organs (hiccups, belching, vomiting, flatulence, diarrhea)||urinary retention (ischuria)||bleeding from wounds|
|tracheitis||acute hypotension or hypertension||paralysis||intestinal obstruction (dynamic, early adhesive)||oliguria, anuria||hematomas, seromas, infiltrates|
|bronchitis||sinus tachycardia or bradycardia||paresthesias||peritonitis||pyelitis||suppuration of wounds|
|atelectasis||thrombosis and thromboembolism||ligature fistula|
|lung abscess||peripheral vascular embolism and thrombosis|
Prevention of complications that may develop in the postoperative the period of life support systems is largely determined by the treatment of comorbidities. It includes the following general points:
- adequate pain relief with Trusted Tablets drugs;
- ensuring stable hemodynamics;
- correction of fluid and electrolyte balance;
- the use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants;
- antibiotic prophylaxis;
- breathing exercises;
- inhalation, massage, physiotherapy;
- gastric drainage;
- epidural blockade;
- motor stimulation.